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- Brilliance – The amount of white light reflected from a diamond’s crown.
- Dispersion (Fire) – The reflection of spectral colors (rainbow colors) from the diamond.
- Durability – The hardness, stability and toughness of a diamond which determines its high resistance to wear or damage.
- Hardness – The diamond’s resistance to scratching.
- Stability – The diamond’s resistance to heat, chemicals or light.
- Toughness – The diamond’s resistance to breaking or chipping.
- Luster – The amount and appearance of light reflecting off the surface of the diamond.
- Scintillation (Sparkle) – The combination of brilliance, dispersion and luster when the diamond or light source is shifted.
- SHAPE AND CUT: This is the face-up outline of a stone. Common shapes are marquise, pearl, round, pear, oval, heart and square.
- MEASUREMENTS: The millimeter measurement of the stone- including both diameter and depth.
- DIAMETER: Measured in millimeters from one edge to the other (girdle to girdle).
- DEPTH: Measured in millimeters from table to culet.
- WEIGHT: Actual weight in carats.
- PROPORTIONS: The dimensions and angles of a polished diamond.
- DEPTH %: Divide depth by the average diameter.
- TABLE %: Divide the TABLE measurement (not girdle to girdle) by the depth.
- GIRDLE: The outer edge of the diamond.
- CULET: The small facet at the bottom of the diamond.
- FINISH: The precision or symmetry of the cutting and the quality of the polish; typically expressed as Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair or Poor.
- POLISH: The condition of the girdle, facets and culet.
- SYMMETRY: Alignment, proportion, and correct sizing of the facets
- CLARITY GRADE – Characteristics that help establish the quality and identity of a diamond.
- GIA classifies clarity as FL, IF, VVS1, VVS2, VS1, VS2, SI1, SI2, I1, I2, or I3.
- Inclusions –characteristics internal to the diamond – on a diagram, these are noted in red
- Blemishes- external flaws or characteristics – on a diagram, these are noted in green
- COLOR GRADE- The diamond’s position on a scale from colorless (D) to light yellow (Z).
- FLUORESCENCE- Some diamonds will give off a fluorescent light when exposed to ultraviolet rays. If the fluorescence is strong, the diamond can have an oily appearance or a slightly bluish color.
- What are the 4 C’s when referring to diamonds?
- The 4 C’s are Cut, Color, Clarity and Carat.
- Cut is the shape of a polished stone as well as its proportions and finish. The most common cut is the round brilliant cut. Other shapes include the marquise, oval, emerald, pear, princess, radiant, and heart shapes. A stone that is ideally cut will have maximum brilliance, luster, dispersion and scintillation.Non-ideal cuts are often described as:
- Nail-head – A diamond that is cut too deep; this makes it appear smaller than its actual carat weight. The brilliance and fire of the diamond are both reduced, and the stone may appear dark.
- Fish-eye – A diamond that is cut too shallow; it will appear larger than other well-cut diamonds of the same carat weight, but will have a dark appearance.
- Color is the degree to which a diamond is colorless. The GIA scale lists the highest color grade as D (the least colorful) and gradually moves through the alphabet to Z.
- Clarity is the internal and external identifying features. The nature of those characteristics – including their type, number, size, placement, color and position all determine the clarity grade. The location of the characteristics is as important as the size and color.
- 5 characteristics to determine clarity.
- Quantity – How many inclusions are there?
- Size – How large is the inclusion when compared to the diamond as a whole?
- Color or Relief – Does the inclusion blend in?
- Type – Does the inclusion affect the diamond’s durability?
- Location – Is the inclusion easily hidden under the prong? Does it reflect anywhere?.
- 5 characteristics to determine clarity.
- Carat is the standard unit of measurement of a diamond’s weight. However, larger diamonds are not necessarily more valuable based on weight alone. The value of a diamond will depend on its color, cut and clarity.
- Gold’s biggest enemy is chlorine. Protect your gold jewelry by keeping it away from swimming pools, bleach, and other chlorinated cleaning products, as well as hairspray, cosmetics, cologne, and perfume.
- Additionally, you should protect your gold jewelry from dust, excessive moisture, and perspiration.
- At night, take your chains off and lay them flat to prevent them from getting kinks or breaking.
- Polish your gold jewelry with a soft cloth after having worn it.
- Gold jewelry should be cleaned with lukewarm water, mild detergent, or a solution of three parts water to one part ammonia. You can use a toothbrush to gently scrub, then rinse thoroughly. Do not leave your gold jewelry in a cleaning solution for an extended period of time, and avoid putting gemstones in with such a solution.
- Finally, a great way to care for your gold jewelry is to bring it in for a professional cleaning to a skilled jeweler you can trust.
- Gold can sometimes discolor skin or clothing because of a reaction to sweat or from abrasion caused by cosmetics which containing harsh compounds.
- To address this issue, the first and easiest step is to clean your jewelry frequently and remove all jewelry before using soaps, detergents, or cosmetics. If that does not work, you may find the need to move to a higher karat gold or platinum.
Most yellow gold jewelry is a mixture of gold, silver and copper, while white gold jewelry is typically a mixture of gold, platinum or palladium, zinc, copper, and sometimes nickel.
- Take care not to wear jewelry when doing rough work. Particularly, avoid exposing any gold jewelry to salt-water, chlorine, or household chemicals, as it may discolor the gold.
- When handling or removing a ring, always handle it by its edges or shank; not by its prongs.
- Avoid exposing any precious stones to excessive heat. Most stones outside of Rubies, Diamonds and Sapphires cannot withstand high temperatures.
- Put on any hairspray, perfume or cologne before you put on your jewelry. This will help keep your jewelry bright and radiant.
- When cleaning your jewelry at home, use a polishing cloth or ultrasonic cleaner, but check any chemicals to be sure they are safe for the gemstones you are cleaning.
Each month has a designated gem that denotes individuals born in that respective month. Jewelry making use of those stones make terrific Birthday, Mother’s Day, or Christmas gifts. See chart below for which stone corresponds to each month.
|October||Opal||Tourmaline or Opal|
|November||Topaz (Precious)||Topaz or Citrine|
Below is a chart for each anniversary year, a gemstone that corresponds and the traditional gifts that represent each year.
|3||Peridot||Leather||Crystal and Glass|
|4||Blue Topaz||Linen / Silk||Appliances|
|7||Zircon||Wool / Cooper||Desk Sets / Pen|
|8||Pearl||Bronze||Linens / Lace|
|9||Andalusite||Pottery / China||Leather|
|10||Green Tourmaline||Tin / Aluminum||Diamond Jewelry|
|12||Tsavorite Garnet||Silk||Pearls / Colored Gems|
|13||Opal||Lace||Textiles and Furs|
|16||Golden Topaz||Silver Holloware|
|25||Imperial Jade||Silver||Sterling Silver Jubilee|
|35||Catseye Chrysoberyl||Coral or Jade||Jade|
|50||Golden Sapphire||Gold||Golden Jubilee|
- Avoid hair spray, cosmetics and perfumes coming into direct contact with your pearl strands, as they can weaken the silk string or discolor the pearls. It’s always a good idea to put on any jewelry after applying cosmetics, hair spray or perfume.
- Clean your pearls with a soft piece of cloth. Cultured pearls can be scratched by harsh clothes or paper towels. Never use any kind of chemical cleaner, unless it is specifically designed for pearls.
- Protect your pearls from perspiration, dirt and dust. Pearls can be cleaned with a mild soap and water solution.
- Have your pearls re-strung once each year. Even ordinary wear can weaken the thread that holds together your pearls, increasing the chance of losing them.
- Be sure your pearls are stranded with a knot between each pearl. This helps keep the pearls from rubbing together and protects them from scattering should the strand break.